Muhammad khail, LATIFABAD

 refugee camp panjpai BALOCHISTAN








Emergency Relief Program Unit

PIDS Participatory Integrated Development Society

11 – A, Chaman Housing Scheme, Quetta

Tel.   831224     Fax.   831284

E-mail. pids@qta.paknet.com.pk







Table of Contents


1.         Project Title                                                                                                   1
2.         Location                                                                                                         1
3.         Starting Date                                                                                                 1
4.         Completion Date                                                                                          1
5.         Sub-Project Overview                                                                                  1
6.         Description Of Beneficiary Population                                                      2
7.         Project Implementation                                                                               3
8.         Objectives & Targets                                                                                   3
9.         Targets for Pit Latrines, Liming                                                                  4
            Washing Places and Garbage Collection                                                            4
10.       Implementation Strategy                                                                             5
11.       Pit Latrines                                                                                                    6
12.       Communal Latrines                                                                                     7
13.       School Latrines                                                                                            7
14.       Maintenance of Sanitary Facilities                                                                        7
15.       Washing Places                                                                                           8
16.       Garbage Collection                                                                                      8
17.       Hygiene Material                                                                                          9
18.       Project Management & Monitoring                                                           9
19.       Hygiene Education Promotion                                                                   10
19.1.   Use And Maintenance Of Latrines
19.2.   Proper Latrine Use                                                                           11
19.3.   Proper Hand Washing                                                                     11
19.4.   Personal Hygiene                                                                            12
19.5.   Domestic Hygiene                                                                           12
19.6.   Food Hygiene                                                                                   13
19.7.   Environmental Hygiene                                                                  14

20.       Mason Training                                                                                            15

21.       Construction of Schools In Chaman                                                         15
22.       Conclusion                                                                                                    15
23.       Recommendation for Future Consideration                                            16
24.       Table Objectives and Outputs (by sector and sector-activity)               17


Area Map of Muhammad Khail Refugee Camp at Panjpai, Pakistan.






annual Project Report


Muhammad Khail, LATIFABAD Refugee Camp, Panjpai, BALOCHISTAN



1.  Project Title


Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion Activities at Muhammad Khail, Latifabad for Afghan Refugees in Panjpai, District Mastung, Balochistan.


2.  Location


Panjpai, Balochistan, Pakistan


3.  Starting Date


1st January 2002


4.  Completion date


31st December 2002




The events of September 11, 2001 have added a new and urgent dimension to Afghanistan’s protracted political and humanitarian problems. The evacuation of all assistance agencies from Afghanistan has compounded the already severe difficulties of responding adequately to a large-scale internal displacement and food security emergency affecting over five million Afghans. It has also affected population movements both internal and external. The additional conflict, civil disorder, and food shortages have already triggered large-scale migration from the cities and towards Pakistan.


For over twenty years, Afghans have sought asylum in Pakistan. Presently there are some 1.2 million plus refugees living in the refugee villages and according to government sources over 1.8 million in urban areas. It is the largest refugee population in the world.  In recent years the deteriorating circumstances inside Afghanistan have not favored large-scale repatriation. At the same time, a combination of the enduring presence of over two million Afghans, domestic economic conditions and reduced international support, have promoted Government of Pakistan to close the borders and impose a stricter asylum regime.




The beneficiaries of this project are Afghan refugees and some mixed minorities form other neighboring countries.  Some of the refugees have been in the country for more than twenty years, while others arrived in the country following the September 11, 2001 event and the subsequent air strikes on Afghanistan. Newly arrived refugees have been accommodated in new sites/camps. Some of them have found refuge in old camps in urban areas living with either friend of their next of kin.


The majority of the refugees are ethnic Pushtoons from Kandahar province and surrounding areas with smaller numbers of other ethnicities, particularly Hazara, Tur Toman, Uzbek, Tajiks and other sub-tribes like the Alkozai and the Barakzai.  These sub-tribes have various historical and traditional differences, which account for the geographical spread of Refugee Villages into ethnically based clusters.  Few of the refugees are literate, and most have rural background.


In the end of November 2001, initiatives were taken by UNHCR in conjunction with Commissioner Afghan Refugees (CAR), after consultation with the Authorities, for the relocation of invisible, refugees residing in the Quetta area. This entailed the rehabilitation and redevelopment of the Mohammad Khail and Latifabad Refugee Camps.  Both of these camps were geographically close and accessible with a daily trip from Quetta.

Text Box: The excessive ration distribution ended up in sale of ration items in local market, UNHCR felt the urge to count the actual population of the camps so the wastage could be avoided. Head counting activity was conducted by the PIDS as the Govt. failed to count the actual population of the camps due to the hostile behavior of the refugees, it was only PIDS who contacted each and every family of the camps and got the actual figure of 40,000 the figure was also confirmed by the PDH after the Polio Drops Campaign in the camps, which was thought to be 65,000 initially.














In this Sub-Project, Participatory Integrated Development Society (PIDS) has implemented the Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion Activities in Muhammad Khail and Latifabad Refugee Camps at Panjpai, Pakistan.


PIDS was involved in the digging of dry pit latrines, molding of latrine and washing slabs and garbage collection. PIDS was also promoting good hygiene practices through education and demonstration besides trainings for capacity building of refugees in sanitation and hygiene education sector and mason trainings. Children, male and female refugees participated in the hygiene education campaign that included personal hygiene, domestic hygiene, environmental hygiene, food hygiene and use and maintenance of latrines.


8.  Objectives & Targets


The objectives of the project were:


Ø                  To provide adequate sanitation facilities to the refugee families inhabited in Muhammad Khail, Latifabad Refugee Camps

Ø                  To create awareness about hygiene education among the refugee communities.


The targets for the provision of different hardware and software facilities were: -


Ø                  Provision of 1000 Pit latrines;

Ø                  1000 Washing Places;

Ø                  15 Public/Communal Latrines;

Ø                  Hiring of Donkey Carts for regular garbage collection;

Ø                  Distribution of 3000 each:

-     Household Plastic Dust Bins

-     Plastic Spades;

-     Small domestic brooms;

-     Bars of soap; and

Ø                  Hygiene education promotion sessions imparted to refugee men, women and children;

Ø                  Mason training to male refugees

Ø                  Liming of latrines was a regular activity

Ø                  Distribution of 1000 tents for each latrines and washing places

Ø                  Construction of 4 schools of 2 classrooms in Chaman

Ø                  Construction of 4 schools of 4 classrooms in Chaman



9.  Targets for Pit Latrines, Liming, Washing Places and Garbage Collection


The physical targets were set for construction of 1000 pit latrines and the achieved number is 1300, while 1000 washing places were to be constructed and the actually constructed are 1300. For the purpose of construction, local labour and masons were hired and trained in low-cost sanitation (LCS) techniques and were engaged in physical work. This has enhanced their capacity in LCS and also provided them with the opportunity to earn better and improved income. PIDS have designed and distributed superstructure for latrines and washing places made of canvas cloth, plastic sheets and bamboo structure for privacy.


Providing logistics for garbage collection in the Refugee Camps was also one of the major activities. 75 Donkey Carts (7 per month) were engaged for solid waste collection and disposal to the main disposal sites selected by PIDS. 20 wheelbarrows have been distributed to the refugees. The community will voluntarily collect the garbage from compounds and will dispose it off in the mud dustbins.


PIDS has also distributed hygiene material 35458 each, which included plastic spades, small domestic brooms, and soap for the refugee population inhabited in Refugee Camps.


Creating awareness among refugee population regarding hygiene education through the use of promotional material was another regular activity.


10. Implementation STRATEGY


PIDS was involved in excavation of Pit latrines, communal latrines, washing places and garbage collection and disposal mechanism. PIDS was also assigned to promote hygiene practices through education besides trainings for capacity building of refugees in sanitation and hygiene education sector. Male, female and child refugees participated in the education campaign that included personal hygiene, domestic hygiene, environmental hygiene, food hygiene and use and maintenance of latrines.


Hygiene sessions were also taken in the mosques for the male refugees. To promote healthy hygienic habits school children were imparted hygiene training. Several other activities were also conducted for women and children specially for their active involvement in the promotion of health and hygiene. The male and female field staff of the PIDS motivated the refugees and their children to take part in the hygiene education activities as a result the cleanliness week compound cleanliness competition were arranged.


            During the cleanliness week the males use to keep the outward area of the compound clean and tidy while the female and children were responsible to keep the area inside compound clean. In the competition of compounds the best neat compound was awarded with a water tanker of 25 liters and extra soaps, 250 such water tankers were distributed to the best compounds. Women and children were also motivated to take part in role plays on the theme of hygiene its importance and benefits on human lives. Like wise promotional walks was another feature for advocacy of hygienic habits.   


11. Pit Latrines

One latrine was provided on either 20 persons in one compound or 4 families/tents residing in 1 compound. The methodology used in the low-cost latrine built in emergency situation was digging of pit that was 6 feet deep with 3’ (feet) dia. Latrines were constructed with fabricated RCC slabs. The completed pit latrines are 1300. PIDS designed superstructure for latrines and washing places made of canvas cloth and having bamboo structure for ‘purdah’ purpose.


12. Communal Latrines


Apart from the pit latrines provided in each compound 18 communal latrines were provided at the place of common use for the male members who avoid using Pit latrines in front of other family members, and on communal places, Basic Health Units (BHUs), Warehouses, Bazar, and for workers of developmental agencies / Implementing Partners and visitors. The communal / public latrines were made of steel with a roof specially designed by PIDS keeping in view the typical situation in Refugee Camps and low air pressure in Panjpai. Each communal latrine comprises two independent latrines separated from each other.


13. School Latrines


Schools were also provided 21 dry pit latrines under the project for promoting safe and improved environmental situation for children of these schools.


14. Maintenance of sanitary facilities


Communal, school latrines and other all latrines were regularly limed to avoid odor and spread of diseases in the community. This helped in maintaining good environmental conditions in the refugee Camps.


Apart from latrines, the communal places and compounds were also kept clean through the involvement of community. New pits were dug to replace the slabs in case of filling of pits.


Upon filling of pits due to the kind of soil, where soil consisted of more stones than mud the pits were filled rapidly, it became necessary to relocate the existing latrine to other place. So new pits were dug and the slabs were shifted at new site followed by the superstructure.

15. Washing Places


PIDS was given a target of constructing 1000 washing places in Muhammad Khail, Latifabad camps while it constructed 1300 of them. Washing slabs measuring 4’x4’ feet made by concrete were constructed and for “purdah”, PIDS have designed superstructure for latrines and washing places made of canvas cloth and having bamboo structure for support.


For the wastewater collection the soakage pits were required to protect the community from diseases, which were constructed near the washing places and connected with a small drain. The soakage pits were filled by stones to avoid any mishap.

Wall chalking and placement of banners consisting

hygiene messages was another effort of the PIDS

staff for the promotion of hygiene education.

16. Garbage Collection


To keep the camp neat and clean and to protect the people from diseases it was necessary to establish a garbage collection system. The dustbins were provided / distributed for the garbage collection. PIDS field staff has taken a step ahead and motivated the refugees to dump the garbage in one place near the compound in the mud dustbins outside their compounds, from where the garbage was collected by 75 (7/month) Donkey Carts hired for the purpose.

72-mud dust bins were constructed out side the compounds, by the refugees own efforts after they were socially mobilized by the field staff of PIDS, so that the garbage collector could easily collect the waste from the depot.
17. Hygiene Material


Hygiene material was distributed in the refugee camps. The distributed number of small plastic spades, small domestic brooms and bars of soap is 35458 each.

18. Project Management & Monitoring


For ensuring smooth and timely delivery of sanitation and hygiene education activities coordination with the field staff and the management of PIDS was very necessary, therefore, regular monitoring and guiding of field staff for effective implementation of operation was always kept at top priority.




19. Hygiene education Promotion


For disseminating hygiene education messages a range of promotional material was used including play cards, banners, posters, wall chalking, other activities like cleanliness competition among the compounds, cleanliness weeks, role plays and tableaus to promote hygiene messages and to boost the moral of the community giving away of prizes were also done by the PIDS. The material was used to educate the refugees in refugee camps through training of male, female and children group on following topics:


v                 Use and maintenance of latrines;

v                 Personal hygiene;

v                 Domestic hygiene;

v                 Environmental hygiene; and

v                 Food hygiene.

v                 Use and storage of water


19. 1.1  Use and maintenance of latrines


Some of the key messages, logic and instructions include:


v                 Open human excreta causes diarrhea in the community;

v                 Getting in contact with human excreta is very dangerous for health;

v                 It can cause typhoid, dysentery, jaundice, worms, eye and skin diseases and infections;

v                 Excreta of young children is especially dangerous;

v                 Human excreta is dangerous for the health of young children; and

v                 Flies are very dangerous because they can transport germs from excreta to drinking water and food.



19.1.2.   Proper latrine use


Train small children how to use the latrine.


v                 No excreta should be seen inside or out side the compound;

v                 Whole family should use latrine including small children;

v                 Throw baby excreta in latrine and wash napkins in latrine;

v                 Sit properly on latrine, do not defecate around latrine hole or pan;

v                 Do not throw garbage in latrine;

v                 Clean the pan and surrounding daily;

v                 Wear shoes when entering a latrine; and

v                 Pit Latrine – throw lime or ash in pit when pit is malodorous.


19.1.3.   Proper hand washing

v                 Wash hands with soap after using latrine, before cooking and eating;

v                 Every body should wash hands with soap after each latrine use;

v                 Wash hands before handling food;

v                 Wash hands of young children with soap before eating;

v                 Adults should wash hands of children;

with soap

v     Wash hands with soap after cleaning baby

v                 If soap is not available wash hands with ash; and

v                 Do not dry hands after washing with dirty cloth.




19.1.4.   Personal Hygiene

v                 Always wear shoes;

v                 Always keep nails trimmed and clean;

v                 Use Miswak or tooth powder;

v                 If convenient take bath daily;

v                 Always wash hands with soap after using the toilet and cleaning child excreta;

v                 Always wash hands with soap before preparing food, eating and feeding the children; and

v                 Train children to wash their hands with soap.

19.1.5.   Domestic Hygiene


Keep your house clean as it will keep your family healthy.

v                 Water taken from open well could be contaminated and harmful for health;

v                 Make a ditch or drain for spilled water near the well;

v                 Keep the water container on a relatively higher place;

v                 It is unsafe to store water in open utensils and Mashkeeza;

v                 For human consumption always store water in a covered utensil and keep the water on a high distance from the ground in shaded area;

v                 One can be exposed to dysentery and stomach problems by using water from ponds, open channels or open wells;

v                 Human excreta cause dangerous diseases;

v                 Keep the animals in a separate location away from the residing area;

v                 Put the solid waste of the household in a covered drum;

v                 Use separate covered drum for kitchen waste;

v                 Always store water in toilet for use;

v                 The dirt and waste spread in the kitchen could get mixed in the food yet making it unhygienic and harmful for use;

v                 If the rooms contain carpets or floor matting the rooms should properly be cleaned regularly by picking those carpets and sweeping underneath them as germs and insects live under the carpets. Brooms should be used for cleaning such rooms.  Living in airy and sunny house is good for health; and

v                 At places where no lane sanitation facilities are present a ditch should be excavated in side the yard for dirty house hold water.


19.1.6.   Food Hygiene


Unhygienic food is the major cause of diseases.


v                 Keep the food clean by keeping it covered;

v                 Wash the fruits and vegetables thoroughly so that all the dirt and germs get washed;

v                 Do not use stale and worm or insect infected fruits and vegetables;

v                 While cooking keep the surroundings clean as dirt and waste around the cooking area might pollute the food; and

v                 While cutting and peeling vegetables the peels should not be dropped on floor but should be kept in a container.

19.1.7.   Environmental Hygiene


Keep the environment clean as pollution and insects cause diseases.


v                 Do not throw domestic waste in the street as it pollutes the environment and also create problems for the pedestrians;

v                 The communities collectively should dig out a ditch in the communities to throw the solid waste;

v                 Children and adults should not swim or take bath in the stagnant water ponds, as it might cause skin and eye diseases; and

v                 The foul water drains in the lanes should be cleaned regularly so the foul water drains out smoothly.


20. Mason Training


            The mason trainings were also held in the Muhammad Khail and Latifabad refugee camps. A total number of 57 trainings were conducted and 571male refugees were trained for the masonry work. Theses trained refugees also constructed slabs for the washing area and pit latrines.


            These trainings were conducted in order to develop skills of the poor refugees so that they could earn better living for themselves.


21. Construction of Schools in Chaman     


            Four schools of two rooms were constructed by PIDS at Landi Karez, Roghani, Dara II and Zarghoon village Chamman. These schools also have two dry pit latrines for the convenience of staff and students.

            Four other schools of four class rooms, and four dry pit latrines each are constructed in Landi Karez, Roghani, Dara I and Dara II. 


22. Conclusion


Worth mentioning is the experience of working with the volunteer male and female refugees, in the early days of the project when the initial capacity of female staff was less three female volunteers offered their services to impart hygiene training to the females of the camp. It was a wonderful experience that those females were trained in hygiene education and they continued their voluntary services till the end of the project.


The notables and elders of the refugees paid great protection and respect to the PIDS staff. Specially once unfortunately when two quarrelling groups of refugees were formed and had a conflict with each other they threatened the staff but elders of those groups themselves offered protection and safety to the staff, proving that they realized the work done by the staff was for their own well being, and that the staff had nothing to do with the conflict.  


This was the first working experience of PIDS with UNHCR in emergency relief situation for refugees. The timely support of UNHCR, UNICEF and Islamic Relief helped PIDS in achieving the desired results and targets in time. UNHCR ensured provision of hardware, timely transfer of funds, staffing requirements, etc. all these efforts resulted in smooth running of operations at field level in Refugee Camp at Panjpai. Where and whenever procurement hindered the relief operations, all the donors were kind enough to allow the purchase from the local markets. This in turn facilitated the organization and refugee communities of timely delivery of services in the sanitation and hygiene education promotion sector.


epair work: Repair work of the tattered canvas super structure of washing place and latrines, shifting of pit latrines when the pits filled up were addressed then and there, side by side. The refugees and the PIDS staff voluntarily did the work so that people could not face inconvenience. 



23. Recommendation for future consideration


Ø                  We recommend that UNHCR may continue the policy of working with local partners, which improves and enhances the capacity of the civil society at provincial as well as at district levels.



FMIS Sector Code: E


Current Situation

Sector Objective (s)

Measurable Indicators


·        The construction of communal and family latrines is being carried out as the refugees are being transferred to the camp.









·        Garbage disposal needs to be taken into consideration


  • To facilitate the digging of more durable communal latrines and promote communal latrines and promote the construction of individual family latrines and garbage disposal pits


  • To promote hygiene education through various training activities among the refugee population.



  • 100% camp covered.


  • No incident of diseases reported due to unhygienic conditions in the camp.










  • Proper garbage collection system introduced and implemented.






Intended Impact on Protection Issues and Policy Priorities:


What impact will the activities planned under this sector have on:


  • The protection of the beneficiary population?
  • The specific situation of women, children, and adolescents?
  • The environment (is environmental damage being prevented, mitigated, or repaired)?



  • Sanitation and hygiene promotion activities have encouraged the refugees to keep their domestic and community environment clean, which has resulted in improved situation in diseases control, better health and enhanced living conditions.


  • The activities also have direct impact on women and children, as women are directly responsible for looking after their compounds and taking care of their children, washing their clothes / cooking utensils.  Because they were made aware of clean environment, sanitation and hygiene issues and how to address the problems, they have taken good care of themselves and their children.  In this way women and children are living better life and are facing less heath problems. By taking preventive actions and having active participation of refugee communities, diseases are reduced by filling of ditches, not allowing stagnant water, keeping the outlets clean around water distribution points and most importantly washing after defecation and before educating have helped in keeping the general environment clean in the Refugee Camps.




FMIS Sector – Activity Code: E03        FMIS Section Activity Name:  Sanitation Facilities / Latrine Construction

Remarks on Target Population


Planned Achievement / Expected Outputs

Performance Indicators


  • Qualified Sanitary staff recruited.(4 field staff, 4 labors and 3 support staff)



  • Latrine slabs molded (for 3800

 latrines/soakage pits)


  • Garbage disposal pits constructed



  • Number of communal latrines constructed


  • Number of latrines constructed


  • Public wash rooms will be built at new sites


  • All latrines in the new sites limed.



  • Clean environment through garbage collection with 4donkey carts / month


  • Hygiene Education promotion carried out.



  • A project team of 11 person staff was recruited by PIDS for effective implementation of project, which is well qualified and experienced in the field.


  • The slabs are molded @ Rs. 270/-



  • In each block 72 Mud dustbin / disposal point through community provided / constructed.


  • 18 communal latrines constructed


  • 1300 latrines constructed


  • 1300 washing places constructed


  • 100% newly constructed latrine facilities are limed on regular basis to avoid odor, and spread of diseases.


  • 75 Donkey carts hired and regularly collected garbage from the compounds.


  • No incidence reported to the unhygienic condition in the camp.





FMIS Sector Code: P

FMIS Sector Name: Agency Operational Support

Current Situation

Sector Objectives(s)

Measurable Indicators


  • As PIDS has not been provided with vehicles for the implementation of this project, PIDS hired commercial vehicles to transport all materials required for the latrines construction to the camp. This practice was not cost effective and UNHCR has been discussing logistical support with the National Logistics Cell (NLC) a specialized government department.


  • Provided overall administrative, logistical and managerial support to all sectors being implemented by PIDS


  • 10% cost and level of assistance provided to refugees as compared to agency support costs as reflected in the budget.



FMIS Sector-Activity Code: P-21      FMIS Sector- Activity Name: General Projected Management Services

Remarks on Target Population




Planned Achievements / Expected Outputs



Performance Indicators


  • Staff transported to the camps



  • Construction materials delivered to the camp



  • Project Coordinator recruited.


  • Finance Manager recruited.



  • Training of all staff carried out.





·        All the staff regularly transported to the camp and sites.


·        All the required material transported to the camp for construction as and when required.


·        A Project coordinator recruited.


·        Finance professional is recruited for the project.


·        Training for all male and female staff organized.